Description: This apparatus is used to determine the water content in petroleum products such as fuel oils, lubricating oils, tars and tar products etc. The material is heated under reflux with a water immiscible solvent, which forms a constant boiling azeotropic mixture with water. Any suitable hydrocarbon boiling in the 1000C-2000C ranges may be used.
Description: This setup is designed to study the effect of various system parameters like solvent temperature, solvent rate, and particle size on the % age recovery of oil from solid and the performance characteristics of solvent extraction of a particular component from a packed bed of solid material.
Description: This is used to determine the flash point of oils, lubricating oils, viscous materials and suspension of solids.
Description: Hot air ovens are electrical devices which use dry heat to sterilize. They were originally developed by Pasteur. Generally, they use a thermostat to control the temperature. Their double walled insulation keeps the heat in and conserves energy, the inner layer being a poor conductor and outer layer being metallic.
Description: An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. It has multiple applications in research and engineering, with common usage in hydroponics, aquaculture, aquaponics, and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in the water.
Description: An apparatus for growing organisms (yeast, bacteria, or animal cells) under controlled conditions. Used in industrial processes to produce pharmaceuticals, vaccines, or antibodies.